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Health Bulletins
June, 2012

Employment Conditions and Health Inequalities


Employment and working conditions make a significant contribution to the development of social inequalities in health globally. They are of critical importance to improve population health and redress health inequalities in several interrelated ways. The aim of this section is to provide an analysis on how employment relations affect different population groups.


First, labour market and economic policies determine employment rates and conditions (e.g. precarious, insecure or informal work). These have a major impact on a range of life chances associated with paid work as a main social role in adult life. Second, wages and salaries provide the main component of income. Low and insecure income affects health via material deprivation, unhealthy behaviours and stressful experience. Importantly, due to childhood experiences of poor adult health, low income can have long-lasting negative effects across generations.


Third, adverse working conditions in terms of physical and chemical hazards, risks of injuries, long or irregular work hours, shift work and physically demanding work affect workers’ health, defining targets of occupational health and safety measures.


Fourth, as the organisation of work and employment has changed significantly during the last century, psychological and socio-emotional job demands and threats evolving from insecure employment conditions and other forms of an adverse psychosocial work environment have become more common. As these demands and threats have been shown to directly affect the health of workers, new challenges have emerged to strengthen ‘good’ (health-promoting and protective) work through primary and secondary preventative measures.


The distribution of unemployment and health-adverse employment and working conditions across the workforce is socially patterned, leaving those in lower socioeconomic positions at higher risk.

Down Syndrome


Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disability and is the most common cause of learning disabilities in children. Down syndrome varies in severity, so developmental problems range from moderate to serious. In this article, we will provide an overview on Down syndrome and the importance of genetic testing for this disease.


Children with Down syndrome have a distinct facial appearance. Though not all children with Down syndrome have the same symptoms, some of the more common symptoms are:


• Flattened facial features

• Small head

• Protruding tongue

• Upward slanting eyes, unusual for the child’s ethnic group

• Poor muscle tone

• Excessive flexibility

• Short neck

• Mental retardation (IQ 50-70)


Early childhood intervention, screening for common problems and medical treatment where indicated can improve the overall development of children with Down syndrome. Education and proper care will improve quality of life significantly, despite genetic limitations.


Most of the time, Down syndrome isn’t inherited. It’s caused by a mistake in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo.

1) How much water do we need on a daily basis?


Our daily need of water is mainly covered through drinking. On a daily basis we need to drink about 1,5 - 2 liters of water. With our food we absorb about 1 litre of water a day. Sufficient water intake is important to prevent symptoms of dehydration.


2) Why do I have bad breath?


Bad breath or halitosis is mainly caused by bacteria in the teeth, gums and tongue, that leads to the formation of plaque, gum disease as well as dental decay. Other possible causes are medications like nitrates and medical conditions such as gastritis and smoking.


3) I need to get in better shape. Where do I start?


Start slowly but consistently by exercising for 5 days/week for 30-60 minutes. Start walking or pick an old sport you used to enjoy. If you need to be encouraged – hire a trainer or take your friend with you to the gym.


4) Do treatments for thinning hair and baldness really work?


Drugs such as Rogaine and Propecia may prevent future hair loss, and cause new hair growth in some men. A more expensive alternative is surgery and hair transplants.


5) What is ADHD?


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects children and the symptoms are: difficulty paying attention to tasks like homework, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, such as trouble staying seated in class or

letting others speak without interrupting.

Tumor Markers


Modern medical research has shown that there are proteins, hormones or antigens found in urine or blood that responds to cancer growth. Our aim in this article is to introduce you to tumor markers and their benefits.It is important to know that some markers are specific to one type of cancer, while others can be seen in several cancer types. Measurements of tumor marker levels can be useful when used with other tests in diagnosis and detection of some types of cancer.


Tumor markers have many uses: screening for cancer presence, making a diagnosis of cancer to confirm the results of other tests and symptoms, determining the status of cancer, monitoring the success of different treatments in controlling cancer and monitoring the status of patients in remission. However, tumor marker levels have some limitations: an elevated level of the biomarkers may indicate other diseases, some markers may have false positive results and the tumor marker levels may rise after cancer has



These are examples of some common tumor markers associated with cancer

Air Pollution


In recent years, worldwide public concern over deteriorating air quality and the associated local and global impacts has grown significantly. The impacts on human health could be the most drastic since human lungs contain very sensitive tissues. In this corner, we will focus on the effects of air pollution on human health and an overview about this issue in Jordan.


Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants such as carbon monoxide may cause smog, acid rain, ozone depletion and global warming that will affect human health directly.


Here are some of the health consequences:

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(English and Arabic)
See also


Tumor Marker

Breast Cancer


Colorectal Cancer


Prostate Cancer, Prostatitis


Colon Cancer


Small Cell Lung Cancer


Trophoblastic Disease


Because it’s important to diagnose cancer early and be able to follow it during or after treatment, researchers are looking for new and better tumor markers including DNA and RNA.

Short Term Consequences

Long Term Consequences


Chronic respiratory & cardiovascular diseases


Damage to brain, liver or kidneys







Irritation in ears, nose, eyes


The magnitude of air pollution in Jordan is hard to assess due to the lack of research and statistics conducted. However a study in 2007 was conducted to assess carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions, and the total CO2 emissions in the country were estimated at around 5.18 million tons,

a large number compared to countries in the MENA region that are more industrial and populous.


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